Watch clips and play games featuring the DC hero Firestorm. Dez. Diese Dokumentation befindet sich im Aufbau. Vielen Dank für euer Verständnis. Das Phoenix Viewer Projekt, Inc. Firestorm steht für: Firestorm (Comicreihe), eine Reihe US-amerikanischer Comics; Firestorm (Film), einen US-amerikanischen Pornofilm aus dem Jahr
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This site is a part of Wikia, Inc. Your Firestorm becomes a flaming siege assault. Now deals fire damage at gem level 1 up from , up to fire damage at gem level 20 up from Had a very slight damage buff.
The Duration of Firestorm has been increased from 1. Base Cast Speed has been increased from a cast time of 1 second to ms. The delay between strikes has been reduced from 0.
The quality bonus has been reduced by The damage done by the Firestorm spell when used by all versions of Ambrosia and Merciless Fire Fury has been increased.
Spells with Damage Effectiveness no longer have their own damage affected by Damage Effectiveness. Damage values on these skills have been updated to reflect this.
Fixed a bug where monsters in high level areas would not do the correct Firestorm damage. Fixed the randomness when it was used with Traps. Fixed a bug where the damage from Firestorm would not display on the client at the right time.
Changed Firestorm to be affected less by additional damage from support gems. Fixed a bug where Firestorm could hit monsters through walls.
Doubled the number of fireballs that fall and rebalanced damage around these changes. On a more continental and global extent, away from the direct vicinity of the fire, wildfire firestorms which produce pyrocumulonimbus cloud events have been found to "surprisingly frequently" generate minor " nuclear winter " effects.
A very important but poorly understood aspect of wildfire behavior are pyrocumulonimbus pyroCb firestorm dynamics and their atmospheric impact.
These are well illustrated in the Black Saturday case study below. The observed hemispheric spread of smoke and other biomass-burning emissions has known important climate consequences.
Direct attribution of the stratospheric aerosols to pyroCbs only occurred in the last decade. Such an extreme injection by thunderstorms was previously judged to be unlikely because the extratopical tropopause is considered to be a strong barrier to convection.
Two recurring themes have developed as pyroCb research unfolds. First, puzzling stratospheric aerosol-layer observations— and other layers reported as volcanic aerosol can now be explained in terms of pyroconvection.
Second, pyroCb events occur surprisingly frequently, and they are likely a relevant aspect of several historic wildfires. On an intraseasonal level it is established that pyroCbs occur with surprising frequency.
In , at least 17 pyroCbs erupted in North America alone. Still to be determined is how often this process occurred in the boreal forests of Asia in However, it is now established that this most extreme form of pyroconvection, along with more frequent pyrocumulus convection, was widespread and persisted for at least 2 months.
The characteristic injection height of pyroCb emissions is the upper troposphere , and a subset of these storms pollutes the lower stratosphere.
Thus, a new appreciation for the role of extreme wildfire behavior and its atmospheric ramifications is now coming into focus. These plumes were proven susceptible to striking new spot fires ahead of the main fire front.
The newly ignited fire by this pyrogenic lightning, further highlights the feedback loops of influence between the atmosphere and fire behavior on Black Saturday associated with these pyroconvective processes.
This finding is important for the understanding and modeling of future firestorms and the large scale areas that can be affected by this phenomenon.
This interaction will increase the burning rates, heat release rates, and flame height until the distance between them reaches a critical level.
At the critical separation distance, the flames will begin to merge and burn with the maximum rate and flame height. As these spot fires continue to grow together, the burning and heat release rates will finally start to decrease but remain at a much elevated level compared to the independent spot fire.
The flame height is not expected to change significantly. The more spot fires, the bigger the increase in burning rate and flame height. Black Saturday is just one of many varieties of firestorms with these pyroconvective processes and they are still being widely studied and compared.
In addition to indicating this strong coupling on Black Saturday between the atmosphere and the fire activity, the lightning observations also suggest considerable differences in pyroCb characteristics between Black Saturday and the Canberra fire event.
A greater understanding of pyroCb activity is important, given that fire-atmosphere feedback processes can exacerbate the conditions associated with dangerous fire behavior.
Additionally, understanding the combined effects of heat, moisture, and aerosols on cloud microphysics is important for a range of weather and climate processes, including in relation to improved modeling and prediction capabilities.
It is essential to fully explore events such as these to properly characterize the fire behavior, pyroCb dynamics, and resultant influence on conditions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere UTLS.
It is also important to accurately characterize this transport process so that cloud, chemistry, and climate models have a firm basis on which to evaluate the pyrogenic source term, pathway from the boundary layer through cumulus cloud, and exhaust from the convective column.
Since the discovery of smoke in the stratosphere and the pyroCb, only a small number of individual case studies and modeling experiments have been performed.
Hence, there is still much to be learned about the pyroCb and its importance. With this work scientists have attempted to reduce the unknowns by revealing several additional occasions when pyroCbs were either a significant or sole cause for the type of stratospheric pollution usually attributed to volcanic injections.
The same underlying combustion physics can also apply to man-made structures such as cities during war or natural disaster. A genuine firestorm was involved in the wildfire disaster in Oakland, California and more recently, the October Tubbs fire in Santa Rosa, California.
In contrast, experts suggest that due to the nature of modern U. The minimum requirements for a firestorm to develop: Firebombing is a technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices , rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.
Such raids often employ both incendiary devices and high explosives. The high explosive destroys roofs, making it easier for the incendiary devices to penetrate the structures and cause fires.
The high explosives also disrupt the ability of firefighters to douse the fires. London , Coventry , and many other British cities were firebombed during the Blitz.
Coventry was adequately concentrated in point of space, but all the same there was little concentration in point of time, and nothing like the fire tornadoes of Hamburg or Dresden ever occurred in this country.
But they did do us enough damage to teach us the principle of concentration, the principle of starting so many fires at the same time that no fire fighting services, however efficiently and quickly they were reinforced by the fire brigades of other towns could get them under control.
Hamburg, Dresden, and Tokyo. Despite later quoting and corroborating Glasstone and Dolan and data collected from these smaller firestorms:.
Unlike the highly combustible World War II cities that firestormed from conventional and nuclear weapons, fire experts suggest that due to the nature of modern U.
Similarly, one reason for the lack of success in creating a true firestorm in the bombing of Berlin in World War II was that the building density, or builtupness factor, in Berlin was too low to support easy fire spread from building to building.
Another reason was that much of the building construction was newer and better than in most of the old German city centers.
Modern building practices in the Berlin of World War II led to more effective firewalls and fire-resistant construction. Mass firestorms never proved to be possible in Berlin.
No matter how heavy the raid or what kinds of firebombs were dropped, no true firestorm ever developed. The incendiary effects of a nuclear explosion do not present any especially characteristic features.
In principle, the same overall result with respect to destruction of life and property can be achieved by the use of conventional incendiary and high-explosive bombs.
It may seem counterintuitive that the same amount of fire damage caused by a nuclear weapon could have instead been produced by smaller total yield of thousands of incendiary bombs; however, World War II experience supports this assertion.
The firebombing of Tokyo on the night of 9—10 March was the single deadliest air raid of World War II,  with a greater total area of fire damage and loss of life than either nuclear bombing as a single event.
Despite a true firestorm developing, reinforced concrete buildings, as in Tokyo, similarly remained standing. Signed by the Enola Gay pilot, Paul W.
This Tokyo residential section was virtually destroyed. All that remained standing were concrete buildings in this photograph.
American historian Gabriel Kolko also echoed this sentiment:. Soon small fires spread, connected, grew into a vast firestorm that sucked the oxygen out of the lower atmosphere.
Only its technique was novel—nothing more There was another difficulty posed by mass conventional bombing, and that was its very success, a success that made the two modes of human destruction qualitatively identical in fact and in the minds of the American military.
This break from the linear expectation of more fire damage to occur after greater explosive yield is dropped can be easily explained by two major factors.
First, the order of blast and thermal events during a nuclear explosion is not ideal for the creation of fires. In an incendiary bombing raid, incendiary weapons followed after high-explosive blast weapons were dropped, in a manner designed to create the greatest probability of fires from a limited quantity of explosive and incendiary weapons.
The so-called two-ton " cookies ",  also known as "blockbusters", were dropped first and were intended to rupture water mains, as well as to blow off roofs, doors, and windows, creating an air flow that would feed the fires caused by the incendiaries that would then follow and be dropped, ideally, into holes created by the prior blast weapons, such into attic and roof spaces.
It is for this reason that conventional incendiary bombing raids are considered to be a great deal more efficient at causing mass fires than nuclear weapons of comparable yield.
The second factor explaining the non-intuitive break in the expected results of greater explosive yield producing greater city fire damage is that city fire damage is largely dependent not on the yield of the weapons used, but on the conditions in and around the city itself, with the fuel loading per square meter value of the city being one of the major factors.
A few hundred strategically placed incendiary devices would be sufficient to start a firestorm in a city if the conditions for a firestorm, namely high fuel loading, are already inherent to the city see Bat bomb.
The Great Fire of London in , although not forming a firestorm due to the single point of ignition, serves as an example that, given a densely packed and predominately wooden and thatch building construction in the urban area, a mass fire is conceivable from the mere incendiary power of no more than a domestic fireplace.
Despite the disadvantage of nuclear weapons when compared to conventional weapons of lower or comparable yield in terms of effectiveness at starting fires, for the reasons discussed above, nuclear weapons also do not add any fuel to a city, and fires are entirely dependent on what was contained in the city prior to bombing, in direct contrast to the incendiary device effect of conventional raids.
In contrast, early in World War II, the ability to achieve conventional air raids concentrated in "point of time" depended largely upon the skill of pilots to remain in formation, and their ability to hit the target whilst at times also being under heavy fire from anti-aircraft fire from the air defensives of the cities below.
Nuclear weapons largely remove these uncertain variables. Therefore, nuclear weapons reduce the question of whether a city will firestorm or not to a smaller number of variables, to the point of becoming entirely reliant on the intrinsic properties of the city, such as fuel loading, and predictable atmospheric conditions, such as wind speed, in and around the city, and less reliant on the unpredictable possibility of hundreds of bomber crews acting together successfully as a single unit.
Portions of the following fires are often described as firestorms, but that has not been corroborated by any reliable references:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about fires. For other uses, see Firestorm disambiguation. Winter Spring Summer Autumn. Dry season Harmattan Wet season. Hiroshima after the bombing and firestorm.
No known aerial photography of the firestorm exists. Archived from the original PDF on 18 February Retrieved 11 May A fire storm is characterized by strong to gale force winds blowing toward the fire everywhere around the fire perimeter and results from the rising column of hot gases over an intense, mass fire drawing in the cool air from the periphery.
These winds blow the fire brands into the burning area and tend to cool the unignited fuel outside so that ignition by radiated heat is more difficult, thus limiting fire spread.